Fallacies/Fallacy : Pengertian,Tujuan dan Jenis - Jenis Fallacy

Apa itu Fallacies/Fallacy?

Fallacies adalah kesalahan penalaran dalam berpikir,dimana suatu kesimpulan atau argumen dibuat dengan dasar – dasar yang keliru baik itu disengaja maupun tidak disengaja,sehingga menghasilkan suatu argumen atau kesimpulan yang ‘cacat’.

 

Tujuan Mengetahui Fallacies

Adapun tujuan kita mengenali fallacies karena fallacies sendiri tidak mudah dikenali, terutama bagi pikiran yang tidak terlatih untuk kritis, akan tetap fallacies juga kerap kali bisa menyelusup kedalam argumen yang sudah berdasarkan kemampuan berpikir kritis,maka dari itu dengan kita mengenali berbagai macam jenis fallacies kedepannya diharapkan kita dalam membuat sebuah argumen atau kesimpulan didasari dengan bukti dan alasan yang logis.

 

Jenis – Jenis Fallacies

Kami telah merangkum fallacies menjadi 275 jenis fallacies dan kami urutkan sesuai abjad agar memudahkan pembaca,275 jenis fallacies tersebut antara lain :

A

Accident fallacy

Ad Fidentia

Ad Hoc Rescue

Ad Hominem (Abusive)

Ad Hominem (Circumstantial)

Ad Hominem (Guilt by association)

Ad Hominem (Tu quoque)

Affirmative Conclusion from a Negative Premise

Affirming a Disjunct

Affirming the Consequent

Alleged Certainty

Alternative Advance

Appeal to Accomplishment

Appeal to Anger

Appeal to Authority

Appeal to Celebrity

Appeal to Common Belief

Appeal to Common Folk

Appeal to Coincidence

Appeal to Consequences

Appeal to Definition

Appeal to Desperation

Appeal to Emotion

Appeal to Extremes

Appeal to Faith

Appeal to Fear

Appeal to Flattery

Appeal to Force

Appeal to Heaven

Appeal to the Moon

Appeal to Nature

Appeal to Novelty

Appeal to Pity

Appeal to Popularity

Appeal to Possibility

Appeal to Ridicule

Appeal to Tradition

Baca Juga:  Epistemologi : Pengertian, Aliran dalam Epistemologi

Ambiguity Fallacy

Anonymous Authority

Argument by Emotive Language

Argument by Fast Talking

Argument by Gibberish

Argument by Personal Charm

Argument by Repetition

Argument from Age

Argument from Fallacy

Argument from Hearsay

Argument from Ignorance

Argument from Silence

Argument of the Beard

Argument to Moderation

Avoiding the Issue

Argument to the Purse

Abductive Fallacy

Accent Fallacy

Amazing Familiarity

Ambiguity Effect

Ambiguous Assertion

Appeal to Closure

Appeal to Complexity

Appeal to Convenience

Appeal to Luck

Appeal to Envy

Appeal to Equality

Appeal to Intuition

Appeal to Privacy

Appeal to Stupidity

Appeal to Utility

Argument by Dismissal

Argument by Lazyness

Argument by Pigheadedness

Argument by Rhetorical Question

Argument by Selective Reading

Argument by Uniformed Opinion

Argument from Design

Argument from Inertia

Argument from Omniscience

Argument to the Future

Argumentum ad Captandum

Argumentum ad Exemplum

B

Base Rate Fallacy

Begging the Question

Biased Sample Fallacy

Blind Authority Fallacy

Broken Window Fallacy

Barking Cat

Big Lie Technique

Blood is Thicker than Water

Bribery

Burden of Proof Fallacy

C

Causal Reductionism

Cherry Picking

Circular Reasoning

Commutation of Conditionals

Complex Question Fallacy

Conflicting Conditions

Confusing an Explanation with an Excuse

Conjuction Fallacy

Conspiracy Theory

Chronological Snobbery

Confesses Under Torture

Contextomy

D

Definist Fallacy

Denying the Antecedent

Denying a Conjunct

Denying the Correlative

Disjunction Fallacy

Distinction Without a Difference

Damning with Faint Praise

Double Bind

Double Standard

E

Equivocation

Etymological Fallacy

Exclusive Premises

Existensial Fallacy

Extended Analogy

Emphasis Fallacy

Essentializing Fallacy

Exaggeration

Exception That Proves The Rule

F

Failure to Eludicate

Fake Precision

Fallacy of Composition

Fallacy of Division

Fallacy of Four Terms

Fallacy of Necessity

Baca Juga:  Hermeneutika : Pengertian, Sejarah, dan Filsafat

Fallacy of Undistributed Middle

False Attribution

False Conversion

False Dilemma

False Effect

Far-Fetced Hypothesis

Faulty Comparison

Failure to State

Fallacy of Multiplication

Fallacy of Opposition

Fallacy of Quoting Out of Context

Fallacy of Crucial Experiment

Fantasy Projection

Faulty Sign

Finish the Job Fallacy

G

Gambler’s Fallacy

Genetic Fallacy

God Wildcard Fallacy

Galileo Wannabe

Golden Hammer Fallacy

H

Hasty Generalization

Having Your Cake

Hedging

Historian’s Fallacy

Homunculus Fallacy

Hypnotic Bait and Switch

Hypothesis Contrary to Fact

Hifalutin’ Denunciations

I

if-By-Whiskey

Illicit Contraposition

Illicit Major

Illicit Minor

Illicit Substitution of Identicals

Inconsistency

Inflation of Conflict

I Wish I Had a Magic Wand

In a Certain Respect and Simply

Intentional Fallacy

Invicible Ignorance Fallacy

J

Jumping into Conclusions

Just Because Fallacy

Just In Case Fallacy

K

Knight and Knaves

L

Least Plausible Hypothesis

Limited Depth

Limited Scope

Logic Chopping

Ludic Fallacy

Lying with Statistics

Lack of Proportion

Latino Fallacy

Lies (Misrepresentation)

Lip Service

Lump of Labor Fallacy

M

Magical Thinking

Meaningless Question

Misleading Vividness

Missing Data Fallacy

Modal (Scope) Fallacy

Moralistic Fallacy

Moving the Goal Posts

Multiple Comparison Fallacy

Mind Projection Fallacy

Monopoly the Question

N

Naturalistic Fallacy

Negative Conclusion from Affirmative Premises

Negating Antecedent and Consequent

Nirvana Fallacy

No True Scotsman

Non Sequitur

Notable Effort

Norm of Reciprocity

Not Invented Here

O

Overhelming Exception

Outdated Information

P

Package-Deal Fallacy

Poisoning the Well

Political Correctness Fallacy

Post-Designation

Prejudical Language

Proof by Intimidation

Proving Non-Existence

Packing the House

Paralogism

Paralysis of Analysis

Pigeonholing

Pious Fraud

Pragmatic Fallacy

Preacher’s We

Probabilistic Fallacy

Psychologist’s Fallacy

Q

Quantifier-Shift Fallacy

Quantum Physics Fallacy

Questionable Cause

R

Rationalization

Red Herring

Reductio ad Absurdum

Reductio ad Hitlerum

Baca Juga:  Accident Fallacy : Pengertian, Bentuk Logis, Contoh, dan Cara Mengantisipasi Accident Fallacy

Regression Fallacy

Reification

Relative Privation

Retrogressive Causation

Retrospective Determinism

Redefinition

Reductionism

S

Scapegoating

Selective Attention

Self-Sealing Argument

Shoehorning

Slippery Slope

Special Pleading

Spiritual Fallacy

Spotlight Fallacy

Statement of Conversion

Stereotyping

Stolen Concept Fallacy

Strawman Fallacy

Style Over Substance

Subjectivist Fallacy

Subverted Support

Sunk-Cost Fallacy

Suppresed Corelative

Sanctioning the Devil

Scope Fallacy

Self-Deception

Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

Self-Righteousness

Sherlock Holmes Fallacy

Sly Suggestions

Snow Job

Sour Grapes

Spin Doctoring

T

Texas Sharpshooter Fallacy

Tokenism

Two Wrongs Make a Right

Taboo

Tautology

There Is No Alternative

Too Broad

Too Narrow

U

Unfalsifiability

Unwarranted Contrast

Use-Mention Error

Undoability

W

Weasel Wording
Word Magic

Weak Analogy

Willed Ignorance

Wishful Thinking

Itulah 275 jenis – jenis fallacies yang kami rangkum dari berbagai sumber,harap dapat membantu kalian yang sedang mencari referensi mengenai fallacies.

Note :

Jenis – jenis fallacies didalam artikel ini akan bertambah atau berkurang sesuai dengan perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan.

Kedepannya kami akan membuat artikel mengenai penjabaran setiap jenis – jenis fallacies diatas satu persatu dengan lebih lengkap,maka dari itu diharapkan pengertian dari pembaca sekalian jika ada beberapa jenis fallacies yang belum dijabarkan karena artikel tersebut sedang/akan dalam proses pengerjaan.

Jika kalian memiliki informasi mengenai fallacies – fallacies yang baru guna melengkapi daftar fallacies diatas,mohon tulis dikolom komentar.

Terima kasih yang sebesar – besarnya karena telah menyempatkan waktu anda untuk membaca,mohon maaf jika ada kesalahan kata dan mungkin kesalahan dalam pengetikan.

Salam Hangat

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